A 1975 amendment to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 mandated the "bilingual ballot" under certain circumstances, notably when the voters of selected language groups reached five percent or more in a voting district.
A 1975 amendment to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 mandated the "bilingual ballot" under certain circumstances, notably when the voters of selected language groups reached five percent or more in a voting district.Tags: Library Inion Science Research PapersAp Bio Biochemistry EssaysAlec Fisher Critical ThinkingHow Permanent Are Permanent Markers Research PaperScience Research Paper Topic IdeasHow To Write Sources For Research Paper
WE have known race riots, draft riots, labor violence, secession, anti-war protests, and a whiskey rebellion, but one kind of trouble we've never had: a language riot. The appeal to the Supreme Court followed a 6-to-5 ruling, in October of 1995, by a federal appeals court striking down the Arizona law.
The very idea of language as a political force -- as something that might threaten to split a country wide apart -- is alien to our way of thinking and to our cultural traditions. Arizona is one of several states that have passed "Official English" or "English Only" laws.
In the Middle Ages nationalism was not even part of the picture: one owed loyalty to a lord, a prince, a ruler, a family, a tribe, a church, a piece of land, but not to a nation and least of all to a nation as a language unit.
The capital city of the Austrian Hapsburg empire was Vienna, its ruler a monarch with effective control of peoples of the most varied and incompatible ethnicities, and languages, throughout Central and Eastern Europe.
He had been active in the Sierra Club and Planned Parenthood, and in the 1970s served as the national president of Zero Population Growth. Tanton, too, resigned, and Walter Cronkite, describing the affair as "embarrassing," left the advisory board. The popular wisdom is that conservatives are pro and liberals con. But would anyone characterize as conservatives the present and past U. English board members Alistair Cooke, Walter Cronkite, and Norman Cousins? 123), passed by the House last August, specifies English as the official language of government, and requires that the government "preserve and enhance" the official status of English.
Argumentative Essay On English As Official Language
One board member, Norman Cousins, defected in 1986, alluding to the "negative symbolic significance" of California's Official English initiative, Proposition 63. True, conservatives such as George Will and William F. One of the strongest opponents of bilingual education is the Mexican-American writer Richard Rodríguez, best known for his eloquent autobiography, (1982). Exceptions are made for the teaching of foreign languages; for actions necessary for public health, international relations, foreign trade, and the protection of the rights of criminal defendants; and for the use of "terms of art" from languages other than English. What are the chances that some version of Official English will become federal law?
There is a strain of American liberalism that defines itself in nostalgic devotion to the melting pot. It would, for example, stop the Internal Revenue Service from sending out income-tax forms and instructions in languages other than English, but it would not ban the use of foreign languages in census materials or documents dealing with national security. Any language bill will face tough odds in the Senate, because some western senators have opposed English Only measures in the past for various reasons, among them a desire by Republicans not to alienate the growing number of Hispanic Republicans, most of whom are uncomfortable with mandated monolingualism. Bush, too, has forthrightly said that he would oppose any English Only proposals in his state.
For several years relevant bills awaited consideration in the U. "E Pluribus Unum" can still appear on American money. Several of the Republican candidates for President in 1996 (an interesting exception is Phil Gramm) endorsed versions of Official English, as has Newt Gingrich.
To say that language has never been a major force in American history or politics, however, is not to say that politicians have always resisted linguistic jingoism.
In 1753 Benjamin Franklin voiced his concern that German immigrants were not learning English: "Those [Germans] who come hither are generally the most ignorant Stupid Sort of their own Nation ....