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They classified reports as being supportive, neutral, or critical of these drugs.For reports supportive of calcium channel antagonists, virtually all authors had financial relationships with drug companies.Conflicts of interest do not necessarily amount to research misconduct.
In practice disclosure of research conflicts usually occurs only for financial interests.
Historically, such disclosure was not routine, even in the biomedical literature (Krimsky and Rothenberg, 2001): In a survey of 789 scientific papers published by Massachusetts scientists in the leading journals of cell and molecular biology, 34% of the articles had at least one author with a significant financial interest.
Avoid and minimize conflict Although it is not possible to avoid all sources of conflict, it is in the best interests of the scientific community and of individual scientists to recognize conflicts of interest and to take steps to nullify or mitigate those conflicts.
Disclose interests If conflicts cannot be avoided, then those conflicts should be disclosed.
Individual institutions and organizations may choose to adhere to the stricter PHS standard of $5,000.
Professional societies and journals are another important source for guidance on the management of conflicts of interest.However, only 43% of the authors of reports critical of the drugs had such connections with drug companies.Many different hypotheses might explain this trend, but it seems clear that it would be valuable to know if a published study was supported by industry.Considering the potential for misperceptions of a researcher's motives, it is best to assume that good intentions are not enough.Seek out information so as to comply with the spirit and letter of current regulations.At minimum, the institution and any other parties with a significant interest should be made aware of the extent and nature of the conflict.Keep learning Both the potential for conflicts of interest and the strategies for dealing with those conflicts are evolving.Unintentional bias can be a more serious threat than deliberate misconduct, because even those who are biased would be unaware of the ways in which their behavior had been altered.Declaring that you have a conflict of interest is typically called disclosure.A variety of regulations and guidelines govern the disclosure and management of conflict of interest.Although many concerns could be generalized to any form of conflict of interest, the focus of regulations tends to be financial.