Step 5: Transformation into bovine cells The gene construct is incorporated into the genome of a cow cell using a technique called transformation.
Transformation involves the delivery of a transgene into the nucleus of a recipient cell and integration into a chromosome so it can be passed onto offspring.
A promoter sequence: A tissue-specific promoter sequence is used to correctly switched the start of expression from the protein in cells with appropriate tissue, for example, mammary cells in lactating cows.
C) The desired gene D) A terminal sequence: A terminal sequence is needed to signal the cellular machinery that the end of the gene sequence has been reached.
As a transgenic animal, the transgenic cows have the extra gene (transgene) present in every cell, but it’s only expressed in mammary tissue, making the transgenes protein only found and extracted from the cow’s milk.
In New Zealand, the Ag Research have been successfully producing transgenic cows that make modified milk or produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases.
Then, the scientists use the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).
Polymerase Chain Reaction is a technique that allows scientists to copy and multiply a piece of DNA millions of times. C so that is separates into single strands and polymerase enzyme is added to synthesis new DNA strands from supplied nucleotides.
When viruses (or other bacteria) attack, bacteria kill them by cutting up in both strands of DNA, at a specific sequence, usually about 4-8 base pairs long.
Step 4: Designing and constructing the gene After isolated, the transgene is made modifying parts of the gene.