Essays On The Philosophy Of Education

Essays On The Philosophy Of Education-86
It is however, the function of my concept that knowledge is just the base; it is how we slice and dice that information, how we ponder, bring in past experiences, tie together other thoughts and ideas, and ultimately actualize a unique and individual set of ideas. The visibility of a teacher's success is not only watching the children cite the AC's or seeing their faces light up when they discover that 2 2 = 4. First, every student in my classroom will have freedom that enables self-expression and creativity during learning. Conclusion It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. For the development of students' critical thinking skills and their confidence, responsible teaching is highly desirable. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. [Read More] References: Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. Austin, TX: Jalmar Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books. In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students. [Read More] references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance. Willet (2002) "e Room for Power Users, Room_Part Seven: Miscellaneous. Within my educational philosophy, the concept of knowledge is, as it is in Bloom's hierarchy, at the bottom of the pyramid -- knowledge is there as factual information. Many people look at the teaching profession as a low paying, non-thankful job. Based on my personal educational philosophy, there are two major perspectives that will characterize the learning process and experience. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000). Last updated: January 30, 2005 This can shatter the confidence of the student and may even make him lose interest in the subject and teacher's views. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. New York: Simon and Schuster Adult Publishing Group. In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is……

It is however, the function of my concept that knowledge is just the base; it is how we slice and dice that information, how we ponder, bring in past experiences, tie together other thoughts and ideas, and ultimately actualize a unique and individual set of ideas. The visibility of a teacher's success is not only watching the children cite the AC's or seeing their faces light up when they discover that 2 2 = 4. First, every student in my classroom will have freedom that enables self-expression and creativity during learning. Conclusion It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. For the development of students' critical thinking skills and their confidence, responsible teaching is highly desirable. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. [Read More] References: Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. Austin, TX: Jalmar Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books. In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students. [Read More] references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance. Willet (2002) "e Room for Power Users, Room_Part Seven: Miscellaneous. Within my educational philosophy, the concept of knowledge is, as it is in Bloom's hierarchy, at the bottom of the pyramid -- knowledge is there as factual information. Many people look at the teaching profession as a low paying, non-thankful job. Based on my personal educational philosophy, there are two major perspectives that will characterize the learning process and experience. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000). Last updated: January 30, 2005 This can shatter the confidence of the student and may even make him lose interest in the subject and teacher's views. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. New York: Simon and Schuster Adult Publishing Group. In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is……

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In that respect, ousseau suggests that the commonly observed phenomenon that children who begin to speak later than others are never able to recover completely and will always communicate somewhat less effectively than children who begin speaking at the normal stage of development. It is not that children are not being taught -- it is that they are not being taught in a way that is determined to be meaningful to what they will actually have to accomplish in life. The Montessori approach is designed to help children with their task of inner construction as they grow from childhood to maturity. The Idea of the Theory of Knowledge as Social Theory." Jurgen Habermas. I pride myself in striving for excellence in all thinks I do. [Read More] Personal Philosophy of Education One of the most important elements in teaching practice is developing a personal educational philosophy that guides practices in the classroom and shape the decision-making process. In fact, some teachers believe that a personal philosophy of education is irrelevant to the real-world needs of education today, but a growing consensus of teachers maintain that a personal philosophy of education is an integral part of curricular and professional development. [Read More] References John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916) Knight, George. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent.

They may be prevented or corrected with the greatest ease, but the faults that are taught them when you make them speak in a low, indistinct, and timid voice, when you are always criticizing their tone and finding fault with their words, are never cured." [195] Similarly, ousseau uses the example of late-onset language as another consequence of the unnatural focus on language instruction in early childhood. This is largely the issue that Rickover and Sizer have with schooling in America today, as well (Essentialism, n.d.). I personally have been greatly influenced by the Montessori approach. Every person is unique and I respect the differences among individual's ideas, values, and ethnicities. Retrieved from King Saud University website: book on research in educational communication/ER5849x_C007pdf Yurumezoglu, K. Retrieved from The Education Resources Information Center website: Philosophy of Education Many teachers enter the classroom for the first time armed with the training and knowledge they receive from their higher education, but with no personal philosophy of education to help guide them in the process. They gives the example of field trips as he says that for a child to learn about dairy products, its better to take him to a barn and let him experience the whole thing himself instead of showing him a movie on the subject.…… Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness.

Retrieved March 18, 2009, from the Institute for Learning Technologies website, at soon, he was learning to read and was successful. Education can help assist us in life outside of it, but it is not a substitute for real life. The difference between a school's standard (and sometimes out-of-date) curriculum in social studies and my own creative class work --…… Presently I am working on earning another degree in Nursing Administration. However, when he further evaluated the situation, he realized that he was facing a real challenge as he was all alone without any accompanying person or any hope to escape from that deserted island. [Read More] Educational Philosophies Pragmatism Pragmatism emerged from the writings of John Dewey who believed that experimentation was the best approach for educating young minds. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration.

But because institutional education is an institution, the scope of the experience allowed within it is articulated and therefore limited. International Committee of Museum Educators Conference, Israel. As an experimentalist instructor that believes in creating original curriculum to deal with the rapidly changing world, I also believe that my original curriculum should be updated contemporarily. Subsequent to this I entered graduate school and studied Health Sciences with a track in midwifery. At first he considered himself as to be very fortunate that he survived from the accident. It also contains within it the idea that education makes a difference…… Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful.

Placing curricular subjects in real-world context will allow educators to select materials that inspire students rather than turn them off to learning entirely. I have been given a second chance at obtaining an education. Finally, a very important part of my teaching philosophy is to remain academically and socially active. For years, the development of education has undergone several transitions from fields of concern and especially through theoretical pedagogic philosophies. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. "As a reaction against philosophies of science that prescribed the appropriate scientific method, such as Popper's falsificationism, Kuhn (1970) focused on the practices of communities of scientists" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). (Aristotle: ( It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. pp.54 California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. The student's relationship to the teacher is that of a person seeking guidance to realize his or her dreams. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…… Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008). Even within the United States, the education system has proven itself to be extremely vulnerable to the detrimental influence of intellectual corruption by the excessive entanglement of ideology and formal education. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time.

Cavell's philosophy of education inspired me to appreciate individual differences in the quest for truth, as Cavell was "concerned with the finding or recovery of the human voice, and of finding one's own voice," (Peters 1999). Since I have been attending college, I was accepted into the nursing program, but I turned it down. Knowledge and organization: a social-practice perspective. This is vitally important to maintain an effective teaching paradigm, where my…… These theories and philosophies have had a significant implication towards shaping normative education philosophies and personal beliefs towards education nowadays. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. Instead of science developing in a linear fashion in a quest for ' truth,' Kuhn saw scientific developments as a series of ideological changes, in which there was a radical break with the past when the scientific community as a whole was willing to change long-standing approaches to generating knowledge. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…… This does not mean that discipline and rules should be ignored. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…… Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. Specifically, the infamous Scopes Trial featured the criminal prosecution for teaching evolutionary biology because it conflicted with prevailing religious dogma (Davidson, 1999). hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…… "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997. Within my philosophy, the concept of basic knowledge is not enough. It is the skill of vetting sources, of analyzing what bias or point-of-view the author may have, or in the case of mathematics asking how that theory om came to be that moves us towards a logical conclusion (Gutek, 2008). Thus, it is incumbent on the modern teacher to understand that one size does not fit all. Most assuredly; one must be constantly aware of the undercurrents that exist within the classroom and work towards those issues; one must be continually creative to ensure that students are exposed to literature and ideas that are less Eurocentric; and finally one must continually adapt one's own view. The results of the teaching profession is also transparent when inventions are created, such as the Internet, computers, advanced communications etc... It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. Students come from variety of backgrounds and hence may need some healthy debate and discussion to change or alter their views if they need to be changed. entry=epistemology Philosophy of Science, Paradigm, Epistemology, and Ontology Note that defining philosophy of science is different from asking you about your personal philosophy of your discipline, such as your philosophy of education, or your philosophy of management. Zalta (ed.), Philosophies of Life: Personal and Traditional hen one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception. Explore the way in which each of these proofs is derived from the 'two great principles' introduced immediately before. He provides many different definitions of the term Absolute. What the educator can take away from this book is that the best educational approaches are those that are culturally sensitive. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Axiology: Axiology is the study of value, or a common term for combining ethics and aesthetics. [Read More] Logic: Logic examines arguments and how knowledge is verified. The success of a teacher is also obvious on graduation night, and those graduates entering into the work place, landing that first high paying job, and succeeding at it. In this case, the learners will have the liberty to experiment with likes and dislikes in order to identify their individual strengths and weaknesses. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. Teachers need to understand that while they can foster discussion and debate, it is not necessary to impose their views on any student. Retrieved 01-26, 2011, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition): 'Kuhn's mature philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.' Philosophical Psychology, Volume 9, issue 3, 1996, p. Bird, Alexander, 'Thomas Kuhn', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. At (general) In sections 37 thru 45 of the Monadology Leibniz offers three different proofs of the existence of God. Philosophy In his writings, Hegel is concerned about the concept of the Absolute. In this narrative, the story teller tells of both his informal education in his tribe and the formal education he received through the Indian boarding school run by whites which attempts to assimilate him to the Anglo world, one that differs greatly from the Cherokee way. (2007): Teach with Your Heart: Lessons I Learned from the Freedom Writers. Diversity: Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. All these little faults of speech, which you are so afraid the children will acquire, are nothing. He believes that not using essentialism in schools has contributed to children who grow up weak academically, and who also struggle with morals, ethics, and values, as well as the understanding that one has to work hard for things that are worthwhile. Learning is an ongoing process and requires a broad vision of education to maximize the learning opportunity. I value my personal integrity, which is respecting the dignity and moral wholeness of every person without limitations or conditions. How Close Student Teachers' Educational Philosophies and Their Scientific Thinking Processes in Science Education. Pragmatic education philosophy doesn't assign a traditional role to the teachers who are only seen as guides and not exactly more knowledgeable beings. Knight in his book on education philosophies explained that pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and education. The most global is the community of all natural scientists." ~Thomas S. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. agley is one of those who holds that opinion (Essentialism, n.d.). Integral to this experience is the environment that must stimulate the child from early childhood to maturity. I believe in promoting health, healing and hope in response to the human condition. Pragmatism includes such as thoughts as futurism, and educational humanism and econstructionism. Philosophy Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions "Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. [Read More] Education As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue.Education also serves a distinct sociological function.…… I did this because I remember my dream has always been to be a math teacher. This context draws attention to two philosophers whose substantial efforts in improving education depended greatly on their contributions; Socrates and Plato. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…… Kuhn saw scientists as engaged in a constant negotiation "consisting of their views of the nature of the reality they study (their ontology), including the components that make it up and how they are related; the techniques that are appropriate for investigating this reality (their epistemology); and accepted examples of past scientific achievements (exemplars)" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). [Read More] References Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. pp.63 Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Far from it, for to create an atmosphere of mutual respect, all students' needs must be acknowledged. There must be rules, but rules with value and purpose, and children must understand the consequences of their actions, not merely be punished to satisfy the teacher's need for authority. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. Much more recently, a conservative political agenda has dominated the educational systems of individual American states in which educational administrative authorities have sought (in some cases, quite successfully) to promote religious or quasi-religious dogma under the very thinly veiled guise of teaching nonsense such as "Intelligent Design" (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005). Education In order to promote the lofty ideals of the Catholic community, our school must sustain an environment in which Christians and Catholics can forge a solid psychological, social, and spiritual identity. [Read More] References History of Educational Theory." Educational Theory. Everyone knows teachers are not in the profession for the money, and that nurses make more money, so people may ask, why a teacher? Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals. Socrates Philosophy Socrates was an ancient educator, termed as the father of Western philosophy. Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals? [Read More] Works Cited Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Previously, the philosophy science was viewed primarily through a positivist framework: "in a positivist view of the world, science was seen as the way to get at truth, to understand the world well enough so that we might predict and control it" (Trochim 2006). Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. Always, the teacher must have an idea of how motivated the students are as a group, what values are important to individual students, the ability level of the class and individual students, and see the educational process as…… The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… Specifically, that approach (in conjunction with renewed attempts to challenge the legitimacy of established evolutionary science) was a deliberate attempt to promote particular religious beliefs in a manner designed to circumvent very explicit constitutional prohibition against that church-state entanglement (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005). To do so, all instructors and faculty must be aware of the intricacies of modern popular culture so that they can relate to students in a way that is meaningful to them. y "personal" and "social" goals, I meant the achievement of ideals set by the individual for himself/herself and for the society in general, respectively. Discuss those philosophies you chose not to include and explain what elements (metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic) you did not agree with and why. We can never erase our own bias and our own views on culture and diversity, but what we can do is encourage our students and colleagues to continue to grow. cat=assessment§ion=main&subsection=qualitytest/bloom Fisher, D. In this essay, I will discuss my philosophy on teaching and which teaching methods…… When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. They shouldn't be forced to believe something or discard some view. • The distinction between and among these terms • n explanation of why these terms are important for researchers to know Philosophy of science, paradigm, epistemology, and ontology Philosophy as a discipline concerns itself with understanding the pursuit of knowledge: how we know things and what we can know. pp.54 Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice. Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives. The 'two great principles' expounded in paragraphs 31-2 of the Monadology are the principle of contradiction and the principle of sufficient reason. One of those definitions is that the Absolute is what people normally conceive of as God. As the word "absolute" suggests, it is not soluble; it does not dissolve. One of the main reason our schools are failing in low-income and high minority areas is because it was originally created to teach middle class white children. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome.Education and learning gained from it is meaningless if the individual cannot enjoy and optimize it to achieve his/her own needs and aspirations in life. "Dewey's conception of vocation: existential, aesthetic, and educational implications for teachers." Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. Education fulfills personal psychological needs: the innate desires for understanding and the acquisition of knowledge that facilitates understanding. In reading a number of philosophers and their approach to education, I was struck with the amount of similarity many had -- saying the same thing but adapting it for their own particular culture. Like continuing education, using methods to include diversity in the classroom are constants -- we will never arrive, nor should we. [Read More] This is closely associated with the subject matter being taught. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. In the case of Virginia Foster for example, we learned that when she didn't want to share a table with a black student, her supervisor told her that this was how things worked at the college and if she didn't want to do it, she could leave. [Read More] Personal philosophy of education statement Although the settings that are used to deliver educational services today differ markedly from those used a century ago, the fundament purpose of education has remained essentially the same: to provide young learners with the academic background and experiences they need to become contributing citizens to American society (Stone, 2014). "Sociology of education." Retrieved from the Dictionary of Sociology In terms of ethics, I believe we feel happiest when we are acting and behaving in ways that will promote our survival and the survival of our offspring. The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time. The branch of philosophy specifically known as the philosophy of science is concerned with how knowledge deemed to be 'scientific' is constructed. Teacher-Learner elationships While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes (Hassad, 2000). The principle of contradiction states that any statement containing a contradiction is false, and its opposite is true (para. However, the god of Hegel is not confined to the Judeo-Christian definition. In Philosophy of Mind, Hegel defines the Absolute as both "mind" and "spirit" that inform a "supreme definition" of God (Mickelson). As Scott puts it, "the Absolute is Spirit, and Spirit is Reality." Therefore, all reality can be explained by the understanding of the Absolute. When this same curriculum is used in a low-income classroom, what is essentially happening is a modern-day form of assimilation. Guell, Jesse Stuart's the Thread that Runs so True, provides a personal account…… It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation.ell, I remember when I was growing up, every time someone would ask me what I wanted to be, I always answered, a math teacher. Although he was a controversial philosopher, his tactics and wise sayings concerning life were always acknowledged. Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. (This is what Popper meant when he said that if a claim could not be proven false, it could not be proven true, either). [Read More] Philosophy (general) Given that experience is argued to be the foundation of knowledge (according to Locke) how - if at all - does Locke make room for what Leibniz would call 'necessary truths'? [Read More] References 21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. Curriculum, while solidly traditional, must reflect the changing needs of the social, cultural, and psychological identities of the students. Certain teachers that I have had in the past, and present, have helped me decide that I want to spend the rest of my life teaching math. He developed several philosophies concerning education. Under them, he asserted the importance of self-education based…… Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Kuhn took what came to be known as a post-positivist view, suggesting that science could be affected by history and a willingness of people (who happened to be scientists) to change: "Post-positivists reject the idea that any individual can see the world perfectly as it really is" (Trochim 2006). Gottfried Leibniz made many criticisms of the work of John Locke, while acknowledging its sophistication and importance, observing that 'although the author of the Essays says hundreds of fine things which I applaud, our systems are very different' (Leibniz, 1982, p. There is indeed a philosophical gulf between the two thinkers. To fulfill this goal, teachers need to be hired according to rigorous standards: regardless of age or gender all teachers must prove that they can relate meaningfully to the students they are teaching.

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