In this paper, we reverse engineer the structure of the directory in a sliced, non-inclusive cache hierarchy, and prove that the directory can be used to bootstrap conflict-based cache attacks on the last-level cache.
We develop mitigations against these attacks and finally are able to formally prove the security of a fixed version of the FAPI.
Although financial applications are high-stakes environments, this work is the first to formally analyze and, importantly, verify an Open Banking security profile.
In this paper, we perform a rigorous, systematic formal analysis of the security of the FAPI, based on an existing comprehensive model of the web infrastructure - the Web Infrastructure Model (WIM) proposed by Fett, Küsters, and Schmitz.
To this end, we first develop a precise model of the FAPI in the WIM, including different profiles for read-only and read-write access, different flows, different types of clients, and different combinations of security features, capturing the complex interactions in a web-based environment.
Such targeted attacks work because users reuse, or pick similar, passwords for different websites.
We recast one of the core technical challenges underlying targeted attacks as the task of modeling similarity of human-chosen passwords.We illustrate that these mechanisms do not necessarily achieve the security properties they have been designed for. An assembly clone search engine facilitates the work of reverse engineers by identifying those duplicated or known parts.Asm2Vec: Boosting Static Representation Robustness for Binary Clone Search against Code Obfuscation and Compiler Optimization Steven H. However, it is challenging to design a robust clone search engine, since there exist various compiler optimization options and code obfuscation techniques that make logically similar assembly functions appear to be very different.We show how to learn good password similarity models using a compilation of 1.4 billion leaked email, password pairs.Using our trained models of password similarity, we exhibit the most damaging targeted attack to date.This attack works with minimal assumptions: the adversary does not need to share any virtual memory with the victim, nor run on the same processor core.We also show the first high-bandwidth Evict Reload attack on the same hardware.Such access to financial data and resources needs to meet particularly high security requirements to protect customers.One of the most promising standards in this segment is the Open ID Financial-grade API (FAPI), currently under development in an open process by the Open ID Foundation and backed by large industry partners.A practical clone search engine relies on a robust vector representation of assembly code.However, the existing clone search approaches, which rely on a manual feature engineering process to form a feature vector for an assembly function, fail to consider the relationships between features and identify those unique patterns that can statistically distinguish assembly functions.