Strategies To Alleviate Uneven Development Essay

Strategies To Alleviate Uneven Development Essay-62
Combined Development It was in relation to developments in China that Trotsky finally moved beyond uneven development.He continued to employ the term between 19, most importantly in the articles collected in The Third International after Lenin, and in Permanent Revolution and its various prefaces.It took a political crisis to provoke this conceptualisation.

Combined Development It was in relation to developments in China that Trotsky finally moved beyond uneven development.He continued to employ the term between 19, most importantly in the articles collected in The Third International after Lenin, and in Permanent Revolution and its various prefaces.It took a political crisis to provoke this conceptualisation.

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The ultimately disastrous outcome for the Chinese working class movement was the catalyst for Trotsky to generalise the strategy of permanent revolution from Russia to sections of the colonial and semi-colonial world.

This was not done indiscriminately – since some were still untouched by capitalist development and had no working class of any size – but applied to those places where conditions similar to those in Russia prevailed.

By the outbreak of the First World War membership of the dominant states was essentially fixed.

What remained was the second aspect of uneven development: the ongoing rivalry between the great powers which involved them constantly trying to “catch up and overtake” each other in a contest for supremacy that would continue as long as capitalism itself.

More often the peoples survived, but their social systems were immobilised by imperial powers interested in strategic advantage or plunder, or both.

Trotsky certainly took uneven development in these three senses as his starting point – as is suggested by the word order in the title of his own theory: “I would put uneven before combined, because the second grows out of the first and completes it”.Colonial rule could even throw societies backwards, as in the case of British-occupied Iraq.Ruling through the Hashemite monarchy after 1920, the regime deliberately rejected any attempts at modernisation, except in the oil industry.To explain the link between the advanced nature of Russian industry on the one hand, and the militancy of Russian workers on the other, Trotsky had to transcend the theory of uneven development, a process he did not complete until the early 1930s.The inability of uneven development to fully encapsulate these phenomena is what appears to have made Trotsky search for a new concept with which to supplement it.The first was the process by which the advanced states had reached their leading positions within the structured inequality of the world system.During the late 19th century the “skipping of stages” had been the experience of several states, notably Germany, Italy and Japan.But uneven development was not the sole basis for this prediction, as we can see by contrasting actual Russian development with two possible alternatives.One of these was the path of the advanced capitalist states.This rivalry led in turn to a third aspect: the developed imperialist states collectively, but competitively, asserting their dominance over two other types of state, described by Lenin as “the colonies themselves” and “the diverse forms of dependent countries which, politically, are formally independent but, in fact, are enmeshed in the net of financial and diplomatic dependence”, like Argentina and Portugal.Colonial expansion prevented some of the societies subject to colonialism from developing at all, and in the case of the most undeveloped, the people involved suffered near or complete extermination and their lands were taken by settlers.

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