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This information is replaced by a shortened (5 words or less) form of the title: is italicised (as is in Latin), begins with a capital letter, and is followed by a full stop if referring to the same page (e.g.20) or by a comma and the page number if referring to a different page (e.g.19): Back to top of page A bibliography is a list of all works used to write the essay.
Return to the top of the page The first time you refer to a source, full details should be given.
If you are referring to the same work in the immediately following footnote you can use ibid instead of writing the full reference.
A footnote begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
Align the footnote text vertically on the left-hand side as shown in the example below.
The information on this page is available to download. Footnotes should be placed at the end of the relevant sentence where possible and should follow punctuation (for example, by being placed after the full stop).
Using A Footnote In An Essay
Superscript Arabic numbers should be used in the text to indicate footnotes, for example .
Semicolons are used to separate each of the references.
However, it is conventional to place the primary source first when primary and secondary sources are cited in a single footnote, regardless of alphabetical order: Back to top of page It is not necessary to repeat all the bibliographical details if these have already been provided in previous footnotes.
This then separates the footnote number from the text, making the footnotes more readable: Back to top of page You may show that the same information is supported in more than one source of information, so you put more than one author in a single footnote.
The order of citation is alphabetical according to authors’ surnames.